It is one of the most common surgical procedures done in dentistry. It requires the removal of an infected mobile or destroyed tooth or part of it from the bone. The extraction should be the last choice of treatment when no other hope exist for the tooth.
There are cases where the bone loss around a tooth is so severe that there is a high level of mobility and everything that could be done has be done and there is no improvement. Leaving the tooth in place can just lead to a periodontal abscess or other complications in adjacent teeth. This is a hopeless tooth and most be extracted.
There are other times where there is a cavity below the gum level very close to the bone. When this situation is paired with some level of bone loss a crown lengthening procedure to allow direct vision to remove the whole cavity would compromise the crown to root ratio and make the prognosis of this tooth very poor. In this case the patient is presented with these pros and cons and an informed consent decision will be made.